Of course, many of the factors in this list are also influenced by the other four determinants of health. The so-called mood disorders—both unipolar and bi-polar depression—are also highly influenced by heredity. Twin studies, for example, have shown that an identical twin has a 60% chance of sharing his or her twin’s depressive or bi-polar disorder.
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Six databases will be searched using tailored versions of our piloted search strategy to locate relevant reviews. Data will be extracted using a standardized pro forma, and the findings will be synthesized into a conceptual framework to address our review aim.
As would be expected, children in families with such disorders show an increased likelihood of the disorder. Researchers have not found a specific gene linked to depression, and the evidence suggests a number of genes may be involved in the development of mood disorders. Other mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder, also show evidence of being influenced by genetics. Researchers have also found that heredity plays a part in the development of a number of mental health disorders. The most common mental health problem among Americans, anxiety disorder, takes various forms, some of which are more inheritable than others.
The immunization of even a few children in a community affords some protection to the others, for each immune child in a population reduces the chance of transmission of the disease. For many reasons, the task of health education, which is normally difficult enough, is made much more difficult by the lack of specific procedures for preventing today’s ills, as well as by the absence of completely effective curative measures. Because control procedures are vague, the actions that health educators try to teach individuals to take to prevent or to cure disease are less well defined than were the actions necessary to control the contagious diseases. The relationship between the desirable actions and the effective control of chronic disease is, by the same token, much less obvious to the public eye. A “place-based” organizing framework, reflecting five key areas of social determinants of health , was developed by Healthy People 2020.
A new environment stipulates the acquisition of skills to adapt to new social demands. Cognitive–behavioral models may prove effective in the control of fear, avoidance, and negative automatic thoughts should they arise during this stressful time period. Cultural influences include folk heroes and media images that glorify interpersonal violence, violent team sports, and guns and war toys that are marketed to young children . However, health care providers should learn skills around cultural competence and patient-centred care.
- There is some evidence that water fluoridation has been particularly beneficial for communities of low socioeconomic status (National Research Council, 1993; Riley, Lennon, and Ellwood, 1999), perhaps attributable to their disproportionate burden and lower access to dental care.
- In more recent years, it has become clear that the nature of health services, rather than simply their presence, is important.
- A review of studies on the effectiveness of water fluoridation conducted in the United States between 1979 and 1989 found that caries were reduced between 8 and 37 percent among adolescents .
- Evidence of the effectiveness of water fluoridation in reducing dental caries has led to other approaches to introduce fluoride, including the addition of fluoride in toothpastes and topical fluoride treatment by dental professionals.
Each individual is responsible for taking whatever action is necessary if he is to benefit from the various measures that medical science has provided for preventing or controlling today’s diseases. Furthermore, not only must the individual take the action, but he must do it at an early stage of the disease, at a time when the findings of medical science will still benefit him. So far as accidents are concerned, however, even though he tries to avoid hazards and to take all prescribed precautions, he is not always safe unless other people also know what to do and then do it. Not every person needs to know about or take specific preventive action to be protected from a communicable disease. For example, if a community, through the action of a few of its citizens and its government, installs a safe water supply and sanitary sewage disposal, all members of the community will benefit.
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Each person must be reached with the educational message in a way that will ensure his response, or else the efforts of health workers accomplish nothing. It is not enough to produce positive results with a few persons or even with the majority. Even approximating the achievement of such an all-inclusive goal will challenge every resource and all the imagination health educators can muster. Such community protection is not possible with the chronic diseases or accidents.
Maximize opportunities for collaboration among Federal-, state-, and local-level partners related to social determinants of health. Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
Such skills can be a compass for exploring, respecting and using cultural similarities and differences to improve quality of care and patient outcomes. Collectivistic and individualistic cultures can give rise to different views on human health, as well as on treatment, diagnoses and causes of illness. Depending on where a patient ‘fits’ along their cultural continuum, including extended at home std test family in discussions about disease origin, diagnosis and treatment may be helpful. Consent for certain diagnostic and therapeutic interventions may be needed from extended family members. The differences between the methods for prevention of acute and of chronic diseases greatly increase the scope and difficulty of the health educator’s job.